Coral Reef Watch Publications (by Topic)

If you would like a reprint of any article below, please e-mail us.

See the recommended citations for Coral Reef Watch products and methodologies.

For a list of related publications that use Coral Reef Watch data and products, click here.



Data Products  |  Bleaching Events  |  Climate Change  |  Remote Sensing  |  Observing Systems
Paleoclimatology  |  Hydrodynamics  |  Ocean Acidification  |  Other Reef Threats


I. Coral Reef Watch Data Products:

  • Eakin, CM, Liu G, Gomez AM, De La Cour JL, Heron SF, Skirving WJ, Geiger EF, Tirak KV, Strong AE (2016). Global Coral Bleaching 2014-2017: Status and an Appeal for Observations. Reef Encounter 43 31(1): 20-26.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Heron, S.F.; Johnston, L.; Liu, G.; Geiger, E.F.; Maynard, J.A.; De La Cour, J.L.; Johnson, S.; Okano, R.; Benavente, D.; Burgess, T.F.R.; Iguel, J.; Perez, D.; Skirving, W.J.; Strong, A.E.; Tirak, K.; Eakin, C.M. (2016). Validation of Reef-scale Thermal Stress Satellite Products for Coral Bleaching Monitoring. Remote Sensing 8(1): 59, doi: 10.3390/rs8010059.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Mohammed, S.S.; Heron, S.F.; Mahabir, R.; Clarke, R.M. Performance Evaluation of CRW Reef-Scale and Broad-Scale SST-Based Coral Monitoring Products in Fringing Reef Systems of Tobago. Remote Sensing 8(1): 12, doi: 10.3390/rs8010012.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Heron, SF, Liu G, Eakin CM, Skirving WJ, Muller-Karger FE, Vega-Rodriguez M, De La Cour JL, Burgess TFR, Strong AE, Geiger EF, Guild LS, Lynds S (2015). Climatology Development for NOAA Coral Reef Watch's 5-km Product Suite. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 145. NOAA/NESDIS. College Park, MD. 21pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Liu, G, Heron SF, Eakin CM, Muller-Karger FE, Vega-Rodriguez M, Guild LS, De La Cour JL, Geiger EF, Skirving WJ, Burgess TFR, Strong AE, Harris A, Maturi E, Ignatov A, Sapper J, Li J, Lynds S (2014). Reef-scale Thermal Stress Monitoring of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-km Global Products from NOAA Coral Reef Watch. Remote Sensing 6(11): 11579-11606, doi:10.3390/rs61111579.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Heron, SF, Liu G, Rauenzahn JL, Christensen TRL, Skirving WJ, Burgess TFR, Eakin CM, Morgan JA (2014). Improvements to and Continuity of Operational Global Thermal Stress Monitoring for Coral Bleaching. J. Operational Oceanography 7(2): 3-11.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Liu, G, Heron SF, Eakin CM, Rauenzahn JL, Geiger EF, Skirving WJ, Burgess TFR, Strong AE (2014). NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Next-Generation 5 km Satellite Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress Monitoring. Reef Encounter 40 29(2): 27-29.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Liu, G., J.L. Rauenzahn, S.F. Heron, C.M. Eakin, W.J. Skirving, T.R.L. Christensen, A.E. Strong, J. Li (2013). NOAA Coral Reef Watch 50 km Satellite Sea Surface Temperature-Based Decision Support System for Coral Bleaching Management. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 143. NOAA/NESDIS. College Park, MD. 33pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Lucas, E.Y., A.E. Strong (2013). Product Development Plan for the Next Generation of Satellite Remote Sensing Products for NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Management Activities. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142B. NOAA/NESDIS. Silver Spring, MD. 69pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Eakin, C.M., G. Liu, M. Chen, A. Kumar (2012). Ghost of bleaching future: Seasonal Outlooks from NOAA's Operational Climate Forecast System. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Liu, G, C.M. Eakin, J.L. Rauenzahn, T.R.L. Christensen, S.F. Heron, J. Li, W. Skirving, A.E. Strong, T. Burgess (2012). NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Decision Support System for Coral Reef Management. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Strong, A.E., E.Y. Lucas, C.M. Eakin, J. Rauenzahn, P. Chang, A. Ignatov, G. Liu, E. Maturi, L. Miller, W. Pichel, W.J. Skirving, M. Wang (2012). Enhanced Satellite-Remote Sensing for Coral Reef Management: Next Decade. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Strong, A.E., G. Liu, W. Skirving, C.M. Eakin (2011). NOAA's Coral Reef Watch Program from satellite observations. Annals of GIS 17(2): 83-92, doi: 10.1080/19475683.2011.576266.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Heron, S.F., B.L. Willis, W.J. Skirving, C.M. Eakin, C.A. Page, I.R. Miller (2010). Summer Hot Snaps and Winter Conditions: Modelling White Syndrome Outbreaks on Great Barrier Reef Corals. PLoS One.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Liu, G., L.E. Matrosova, C. Penland, D.K. Gledhill, C.M. Eakin, R.S. Webb, T.R.L. Christensen, S.F. Heron, J.A. Morgan, W.J. Skirving and A.E. Strong (2009). NOAA Coral Reef Watch Coral Bleaching Outlook System. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida: 951-955.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Strong, A.E., F. Arzayus, W. Skirving and S.F. Heron (2006). Identifying Coral Bleaching Remotely via Coral Reef Watch - Improved Integration and Implications for Changing Climate. In J.T. Phinney, et al. [Eds.], Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol. 61, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 163-180 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Liu, G., A.E. Strong, W.J. Skirving and L.F. Arzayus (2006). Overview of NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program's Near-Real-Time Satellite Global Coral Bleaching Monitoring Activities. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, Okinawa: 1783-1793.
          ---  Free download from ReefBase.

  • Strong, A.E., G. Liu, J. Meyer, J.C. Hendee and D. Sasko (2004). Coral Reef Watch 2002. Bulletin of Marine Science 75(2): 259-268.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Hendee, J.C., G. Liu, A. Strong, J. Sapper, D. Sasko, and C. Dahlgren (2002). Near Real-Time Validation of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Products at Rainbow Gardens Reef, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, Miami, Florida, 20-22 May 2002. Veridian Systems Division, CD-ROM, 9 pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Strong, A.E., T.J. Goreau and R. Hayes (1999). Ocean HotSpots and Coral Reef Bleaching: January - July 1998. Reef Encounter 24: 20-22.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Toscano, M.A., A.E. Strong and I.C. Guch (1999). New analyses for ocean HotSpots and coral reef bleaching. Reef Encounter 26: 31.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Strong, A.E., C.S. Barrientos, C. Duda and J. Sapper (1997). Improved satellite techniques for monitoring coral reef bleaching. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama City, Panama: 1495-1498.
          ---  Free download from ReefBase.

  • Gleeson, M.W. and A.E. Strong (1995). Applying MCSST to coral reef bleaching. Advances in Space Research 16(10): 151-154.
          ---  Download the article in PDF format: 110KB
          ---  Download the figures in PDF format: 5.4MB
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Gleeson, M.W. and A.E. Strong (1994). Applying MCSST to coral reef bleaching. EOS 75: 156.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).

  • Boone, M.J. and A.E. Strong (1992). An MCSST climatology: 1984-1990. EOS 73(43): 264.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).


Data Products  |  Bleaching Events  |  Climate Change  |  Remote Sensing  |  Observing Systems
Paleoclimatology  |  Hydrodynamics  |  Ocean Acidification  |  Other Reef Threats


II. Bleaching Events:

  • Hughes, TP, JT Kerry, M Álvarez-Noriega, JG Álvarez-Romero, KD Anderson, AH Baird, RC Babcock, M Beger, DR Bellwood, R Berkelmans,  TC Bridge, I Butler, M Byrne, NE Cantin,  S Comeau, SR Connolly, GS Cumming, SJ Dalton, G Diaz-Pulido, CM Eakin, WF Figueira, JP Gilmour, HB Harrison,  SF Heron, AS Hoey, J-PA Hobbs, MO Hoogenboom,  EV Kennedy, C Kuo, JM Lough, RJ Lowe, G Liu,  MT McCulloch, HA Malcolm, MJ McWilliam, JM Pandolfi,  RJ Pears, MS Pratchett, V Schoepf, T Simpson, WJ Skirving, B Sommer, G Torda, DR Wachenfeld, BL Willis, SK Wilson (2017). Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature 543(7645): 373-377, doi:10.1038/nature21707.
          --- 
    Free download from the publisher.

  • Wooldridge SA, Heron SF, Brodie JE, Done TJ, Masiri I, Hinrichs S (2017). Excess seawater nutrients, enlarged algal symbiont densities and bleaching sensitive reef locations: 2. A regional-scale predictive model for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 114(1): 343-354, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.09.045.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Doshi, A., S. Pascoe, O. Thébaud, C.R. Thomas, N Setiasih, J. Tan Chun Hong, J. True, H.Z. Schuttenberg, S.F. Heron (2012). Loss of economic value from coral bleaching in S.E. Asia. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Tan C.H., S.F. Heron (2011). First observed severe mass bleaching in Malaysia, Greater Coral Triangle, Galaxea. Journal of Coral Reef Studies 13: 27-28.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Thomas C.R., S.F. Heron (2011). South-East Asia Coral Bleaching Rapid Response: Final Report. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Australia. 24pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Eakin, M., J. Morgan, S. Heron, T. Smith, G. Liu, L. Alvarez-Filip, B. Baca, E. Bartels, C. Bastidas, C. Bouchon, M. Brandt, A. Bruckner, L. Bunkley-Williams, A. Cameron, B. Causey, M. Chiappone, T. Christensen, M. Crabbe, O. Day, E. de la Guardia, G. Díaz-Pulido, D. DiResta, D. Gil-Agudelo, D. Gilliam, R. Ginsburg, S. Gore, H. Guzman, J. Hendee, E. Hernández-Delgado, E. Husain, C. Jeffrey, R. Jones, E. Jordán-Dahlgren, L. Kaufman, D. Kline, P. Kramer, J. Lang, D. Lirman, J. Mallela, C. Manfrino, J. Maréchal, K. Marks, J. Mihaly, W. Miller, E. Mueller, E. Muller, C. Orozco Toro, H. Oxenford, D. Ponce-Taylor, N. Quinn, K. Ritchie, S. Rodríguez, A. Rodríguez Ramírez, S. Romano, J. Samhouri, J. Sánchez, G. Schmahl, B. Shank, W. Skirving, S. Steiner, E. Villamizar, S. Walsh, C. Walter, E. Weil, E. Williams, K. Roberson, and Y. Yusuf (2010). Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005. PLoS One.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Fenner, D., S.F. Heron (2009). Annual summer bleaching of a multi-species coral community in backreef pools of American Samoa. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, 7-11 July 2008.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Oliver, J.K., R. Berkelmans and C.M. Eakin (2009). Coral Bleaching in Space and Time. In M.H. Van Oppen & J.M. Lough [Eds.], Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Ecological Studies 205, Springer, Berlin. 178 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Heron, S., J. Morgan, M. Eakin and W. Skirving (2008). Hurricanes and their effects on coral reefs. In C. Wilkinson & D. Souter [Eds.], Status of Caribbean Coral Reefs after Bleaching and Hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia. 31-36 pp.
          ---  Download the report in PDF format: 4.0MB

  • Morgan, J., S. Heron and M. Eakin (2008). The 2005 Bleaching Event: Coral-List Log. In C. Wilkinson & D. Souter [Eds.], Status of Caribbean Coral Reefs after Bleaching and Hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia. 37-44 pp.
          ---  Download the report in PDF format: 4.0MB

  • Hoegh-Guldburg, O., M. Fine, W. Skirving, R. Johnstone, S. Dove and A. Strong (2005). Coral bleaching following wintry weather. Limnology and Oceanography 50(1): 265-271.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Berkelmans, R., G. De'ath, S. Kininmonth and W.J. Skirving (2004). A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions. Coral Reefs 23(1): 74-83.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • McClanahan, T.R., A.H. Baird, P.A. Marshall and M.A. Toscano (2004). Comparing bleaching and mortality responses of hard corals between southern Kenya and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48(3-4): 327-335.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Liu, G., A.E. Strong and W. Skirving (2003). Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperatures during 2002 Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching. EOS 84(15): 137.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).

  • Strong, A.E., G. Liu and R. Brainard (2003). NOAA satellites give early warning for coral bleaching in Northwestern Hawaii Archipelago. Coastlines 13(3): 8-11.
          ---  Download the article in PDF format: 4.6MB

  • Strong, A.E., G. Liu, T. Kimura, H. Yamano, M. Tsuchiya, S. Kakuma, and R. van Woesik (2002). Detecting and monitoring 2001 coral reef bleaching events in Ryukyu Islands, Japan using satellite bleaching HotSpot remote sensing technique. Proc. 2002 IEEE Int. Geosci. Rem. Sens. Symp., Toronto, Canada 1: 237-239.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Aronson, R.B., W.F. Precht, M.A. Toscano and K.H. Koltes (2002). The 1998 bleaching event and its aftermath on a coral reef in Belize. Marine Biology 141(3): 435-447.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Bruno, J.F., C.E. Siddon, J.D. Witman, P.L. Colin and M.A. Toscano (2001). El Nino related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands. Coral Reefs 20(2): 127-136.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Skirving, W. and J. Guinotte (2001). The sea surface temperature story on the Great Barrier Reef during the coral bleaching event of 1998. In E. Wolanski [Ed.] Oceanographic processes of coral reefs: physical and biological links in the Great Barrier Reef. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 356 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Cumming, R.L., M.A. Toscano, E.R. Lovell, B.A. Carlson, N.K. Dulvy, A. Hughes, J.F. Koven, N.J. Quinn, H.R. Sykes, O.J.S. Taylor and D. Vaughan (2000). Mass coral bleaching in the Fiji Islands, 2000. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali: 1161-1169.
          ---  Free download from ReefBase.

  • Goreau, T., T. McClanahan, R. Hayes and A.E. Strong (2000). Conservation of coral reefs after the 1998 global bleaching event. Conservation Biology 14(1): 5-15.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Wilkinson, C., O. Linden, H. Cesar, G. Hodgson, J. Rubens, and A.E. Strong (1999). Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of 1998 coral mortality in the Indian Ocean: an ENSO impact and a warning of future change? Ambio 28(2): 188-196.
          ---  Free download from Reef Check.

  • Goreau, T.J., R.L. Hayes and A.E. Strong (1996). Tracking South Pacific coral reef bleaching by satellite and field obervations. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama: 1491-1494.
          ---  Free download from ReefBase.

  • Emery, G.K. and A.E. Strong (1995). Coral bleaching events of 1994 and high SST. EOS 76: S51.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).

  • McCormack, R.C. and A.E. Strong (1990). Correlations between sea surface temperature trends and Caribbean coral bleaching events. EOS 71: 531.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).




III. Climate Change and Coral Reefs:

  • Tommasi, D, Stock CA, Hobday AJ, Methot R, Kaplan I, Eveson JP, Holsman K, Miller T, Gaichas S, Gehlen M, Pershing A, Vecchi GA, Msadek R, Delworth T, Eakin CM, Haltuch M, Sefarian R, Spillman CM, Hartog JR, Siedlecki S, Samhouri J, Muhling B, Asch R, Pinsky ML, Saba V, Kapnick S, Gaitan CF, Rykaczewski R, Alexander MA, Xue Y, Pegion KV, Lynch P, Payne MR, Kristiansen T, Lehodey P, Werner FE (2017). Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: The role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts. Progress in Oceanography 152: 15-49, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2016.12.011.
          --- 
    Free download from the publisher (until April 11, 2017).

  • van de Water, JAJM, Lamb JB, Heron SF, van Oppen MJH, Willis BL (2016). Temporal patterns in innate immunity parameters in reef-building corals and linkages with local climatic conditions. Ecosphere 7(11): e01505, doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1505.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • van Hooidonk, R, Maynard J, Tamelander J, Gove J, Ahmadia G, Raymundo L, Williams G, Heron S, Planes S (2016). Local-scale projections of coral reef futures and implications of the Paris Agreement. Scientific Reports 6: 39666, doi: 10.1038/srep39666.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.
          ---  Supplementary Information.

  • Heron, SF, Maynard J, van Hooidonk R, Eakin CM (2016). Warming Trends and Bleaching Stress of the World's Coral Reefs 1985-2012. Scientific Reports 6: 38402, doi: 10.1038/srep38402.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.
          ---  Supplementary Information.

  • Heron SF, Eakin CM, Maynard JA, van Hooidonk R. 2016. Impacts and effects of ocean warming on coral reefs. In: Laffoley, D., & Baxter, J.M. (editors). 2016. Explaining ocean warming: Causes, scale, effects and consequences. Full report. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 177-197.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Manzello, DP, Eakin CM, Glynn PW (2017) "Effects of Global Warming and Ocean Acidification on Carbonate Budgets of Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs." Coral Reefs of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Eds. PW Glynn, DP Manzello, IC Enochs. Netherlands: Springer, 2016. 517-533; doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-7499-4_18.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Keith, SA, Maynard JA, Edwards AJ, Guest JR, Bauman AG, van Hooidonk R, Heron SF, Berumen ML, Bouwmeester J, Piromvaragorn S, Rahbek C, Baird AH. (2016) Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature. Proc. R. Soc. B 283(1830): 20160011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0011.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Ainsworth, TD, Heron SF, Ortiz JC, Mumby PJ, Grech A, Ogawa D, Eakin CM, Leggat W. (2016) Climate change disables coral bleaching protection on the Great Barrier Reef. Science 352(6283): 338-342, doi: 10.1126/science.aac7125.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Wilkinson C, Salvat B, Eakin CM, Brathwaite A, Francini-Filho R, Webster N, Ferreira BP, Harris P (2016) Tropical and Sub-Tropical Coral Reefs. In the Group of Experts of the Regular Process [Ed.] The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment: World Ocean Assessment I, United Nations, Chapter 43, 1-42pp.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Magris, RA, Heron SF, Pressey RL (2015) Conservation Planning for Coral Reefs Accounting for Climate Warming Disturbances. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0140828, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140828.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Maynard JA, McKagan S, Raymundo L, Johnson S, Ahmadia GN, Johnston L, Houk P, Williams GJ, Kendall M, Heron SF, van Hooidonk R, Mcleod E, Tracey D, Planes S (2015) Assessing relative resilience potential of coral reefs to inform management. Biological Conservation 192: 109-119, doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.09.001.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Gattuso, J-P, Magnan A, Billé R, Cheung WWL, Howes EL, Joos F, Allemand D, Bopp L, Cooley S, Eakin CM, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kelly RP, Pörtner HO, Rogers AD, Baxter JM, Laffoley D, Osborn D, Rankovic A, Rochette J, Sumaila UR, Treyer S, Turley C (2015) Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different CO2 emissions scenarios. Science 349(6243): aac4722, doi: 10.1126/science.aac4722.
          ---  Free download from this page.

  • Howes EL, Joos F, Eakin CM, and Gattuso J-P. (2015) An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on the chemical, physical and biological processes in the oceans. Frontiers in Marine Science 2: 36, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00036.
          ---  Free download.

  • Anderson, KD, Heron SF, Pratchett MS. (2015) Species-specific declines in the linear extension of branching corals at a subtropical reef, Lord Howe Island. Coral Reefs 34(2): 479-490, doi: 10.1007/s00338-014-1251-1.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Vega-Rodriguez, M., Muller-Karger F., Hallock P., Quiles-Perez G., Eakin M., Colella M., Jones D., Li J., Soto I., Guild L., Lynds S., Ruzicka R. (2015) Influence of water-temperature variability on stony coral diversity in Florida Keys patch reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 528: 173-186, doi: 10.3354/meps11268.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Maynard, J, van Hooidonk R, Eakin CM, Puotinen M, Garren M, Williams G, Heron SF, Lamb J, Weil E, Willis B, Harvell CD (2015) Projections of climate conditions that increase coral disease susceptibility and pathogen abundance and virulence. Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2625.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Howes, E. L., Joos, F., Eakin, M., Gattuso, J.-P. (2015) The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I: An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans, Studies N° 02/15, IDDRI, Paris, France, 52pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Weatherdon, L., Rogers, A., Sumaila, R., Magnan, A., Cheung, W.W.L. (2015) The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II: An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors, Studies N° 03/15, IDDRI, Paris, France, 46pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Eakin, CM, Rauenzahn JL, Liu G, Heron SF, Skirving WJ, Geiger EF, Burgess TFR, Strong AE (2014) Will 2014-2015 be the Next Big El Niño? If so, What Might it Mean for Coral Reefs? Reef Encounter 40 29(2): 30-35.
          ---  Free download.

  • Anthony, KRN, Marshall PA, Abdullah A, Beeden R, Bergh C, Black R, Eakin CM, Game ET, Gooch M, Graham NAJ, Green A, Heron SF, van Hooidonk R, Knowland C, Mangubhai S, Marshall N, Maynard JA, McGinnity P, McLeod E, Mumby PJ, Nyström M, Obura D, Oliver J, Possingham HP, Pressey RL, Rowlands GP, Tamelander J, Wachenfeld D, Wear S (2014) Operationalising resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change. Global Change Biology 21(1): 48-61, doi: 10.1111/gcb.12700.
          ---  Free download.

  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., R. Cai, E.S. Poloczanska, P.G. Brewer, S. Sundby, K. Hilmi, V.J. Fabry, and S. Jung (2014) The Ocean. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Barros, V.R., C.B. Field, D.J. Dokken, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1655-1731.
          ---  Free download.

  • Eakin, CM (2014) Lamarck was partially right - and that is good for corals (perspective article). Science 344(6186): 798-799.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Jackson, Jeremy B.C., Donovan, Mary K., Cramer, Katie L., Lam, Vivian Y.Y., Bak, Rolf P.M., Chollett, Iliana, Connolly, Sean R., Cortés, Jorge, Dustan, Phil, Eakin, C. Mark, Friedlander, Alan M., Greenstein, Benjamin J., Heron, Scott F., Hughes, Terry, Miller, Jeff, Mumby, Peter, Pandolfi, John M., Rogers, Caroline S., Steneck, Robert, Weil, Ernesto, Alemu I, Jahson B., Alevizon, William S., Arias-González, Jesús Ernesto, Atkinson, Andrea, Ballantine, David L., Bastidas, Carolina, Bouchon, Claude, Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande, Box, Steve, Brathwaite, Angelique, Bruno, John F., Caldow, Chris, Carpenter, Robert C., Charpentier, Bernadette H., Causey, Billy, Chiappone, Mark, Claro, Rodolfo, Cróquer, Aldo, Debrot, Adolphe O., Edmunds, Peter, Fenner, Douglas, Fonseca, Ana, Ford, Marcia C., Forman, Kirah, Forrester, Graham E., Garza-Pérez, Joaquín R., Gayle, Peter M.H., Grimsditch, Gabriel D., Guzmán, Hector M., Harborne, Alastair R., Hardt, Marah J., Hixon, Mark, Idjadi, Joshua, Jaap, Walter, Jeffrey, Christopher F.G., Johnson, Ayana Elizabeth, Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric, Koltes, Karen, Lang, Judith C., Loya, Yossi, Majil, Isaias, Manfrino, Carrie, Maréchal, Jean-Philippe, McCoy, Croy M.R., McField, Melanie D., Murdoch, Thaddeus, Nagelkerken, Ivan, Nemeth, Richard, Nugues, Maggy M., Oxenford, Hazel A., Paredes, Gustavo, Pitt, Joanna M., Polunin, Nicholas V.C., Portillo, Pedro, Reyes, Héctor Bonilla, Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa E., Rodriguez-Ramirez, Alberto, Ruttenberg, Benjamin I., Ruzicka, Rob, Sandin, Stuart, Shulman, Myra J., Smith, Struan R., Smith, Tyler B., Sommer, Brigitte, Stallings, Chris, Torres, Rubén E., Tunnell Jr., John W., Vermeij, Mark J.A., Williams, Ivor D., Witman, Jon D. (2014). Part I: Overview And Synthesis For The Wider Caribbean Region. In: J. Jackson, M. Donovan, K. Cramer, and V. Lam (eds.), Status And Trends Of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012, Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 55-154.
          ---  Free download.

  • Schuttenberg, HZ, Pascoe S, Heron SF, Setiasih N, Tan JCH, True J, Manopawitr P, Calgaro E, Chelliah A, Doshi A, Hyde J, Lau CM, Purwita D, Yee S. (2014). Building Capacity for Socio-ecological Resilience to Coral Bleaching Events in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. APN Science Bulletin 4: 152-157.
          ---  Free download.

  • Weijerman, M, Birkeland C, Piniak GA, Miller MW, Eakin CM, McElhany P, Dunlap M, Patterson M, Brainard RE (2014). Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 7: 15-21.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Burge, CA, Eakin CM, Friedman CS, Froelich B, Hershberger PK, Hofmann EE, Petes LE, Prager KC, Weil E, Willis BL, Ford SE, Harvell CD (2014). Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society. Annual Review of Marine Science 6: 249-277.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Logan, C.A., J.P. Dunne, C.M. Eakin, S.D. Donner (2014). Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching. Global Change Biology 20(1): 125-139, doi:10.1111/gcb.12390.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Brainard, R.E., Weijerman M., Eakin C.M., McElhany P., Miller M.W., Patterson M., Piniak G.A., Dunlap M.J., Birkeland C. (2013). Incorporating Climate and Ocean Change into Extinction Risk Assessments for 82 Coral Species. Conservation Biology 27(6): 1169-1178, doi:10.1111/cobi.12171.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Birkeland, C., Miller M.W., Piniak G.A., Eakin C.M., Weijerman M., McElhany P., Dunlap M., Brainard R.E. (2013). Safety in numbers? Abundance may not safeguard corals from increasing carbon dioxide. BioScience 63(12): 967-974, doi:10.1525/bio.2013.63.12.9.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Neal, B.P., Condit C., Liu G., dos Santos S., Kahru M., Mitchell B.G., Kline D.I. (2013). When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Coral Reefs 33(1): 193-205, doi:10.1007/s00338-013-1081-6.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Bauman, A.G., M.S. Pratchett, A.H. Baird, B. Riegl, S.F. Heron, D.A. Feary (2013). Variation in the size structure of corals is related to environmental extremes in the Persian Gulf. Marine Environmental Research 84: 43-50, doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.11.007.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Gove, J.M., G.J. Williams, M.A. McManus, S.F. Heron, S.A. Sandin, O.J. Vetter, D.G. Foley (2013). Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems. PLoS ONE 8(4): e61974, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061974.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Chollett, I., F.E. Müller-Karger, S.F. Heron, W. Skirving, P.J. Mumby (2012). Seasonal and spatial heterogeneity of recent sea surface temperature trends in the Caribbean Sea and southeast Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64(5): 956-965.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Heron, S.F., R.L. Pressey, W.J. Skirving, J.L. Rauenzahn, B.A.A. Parker, C.M. Eakin (2012). Identifying Oceanic Thermal Anomalies in the Coral Triangle Region. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Logan, C.A., J.D. Dunne, C.M. Eakin, S.D. Donner (2012). A framework for comparing coral bleaching thresholds. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • McClanahan, T.R., S.D. Donner, J.A. Maynard, M.A. MacNeil, N.A.J. Graham, J.M. Maina, A.C. Baker, J.B. Alemu, I.M. Beger, S.J. Campbell, E.S. Darling, C.M. Eakin, S.F. Heron, S.D. Jupiter, C.J. Lundquist, E. McLeod, P.J. Mumby, M.J. Paddack, E.R. Selig, R. van Woesik (2012). Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate, PLoS ONE 7(8): e42884.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • McLeod, E., A. Green, E. Game, K. Anthony, J. Cinner, S.F. Heron, J. Kleypas, C. Lovelock, J.M. Pandolfi, R.L. Pressey, R. Salm, S. Schill, C. Woodroffe (2012). Integrating climate and ocean change vulnerability into conservation planning, Coastal Management 40:6, 651-672,
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Helmle, K.P., R.E. Dodge, P.K. Swart, D.K. Gledhill, C.M. Eakin (2011). Growth rates of Florida corals from 1937 to 1996 and their response to climate change. Nature Communications 2(215), doi:10.1038/ncomms1222.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Mumby, P.J., I.A. Elliott, C.M. Eakin, W. Skirving, C.B. Paris, H.J. Edwards, S. Enríquez R. Iglesias-Prieto, L.M. Cherubin, J.R. Stevens (2011). Reserve design for uncertain responses of coral reefs to climate change. Ecology Letters, 14: 132.140, doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01562.x.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Spillman, C.M., S.F. Heron, M.R. Jury, K.R.N. Anthony (2011). Climate Change and Carbon Threats to Coral Reefs: National Meteorological and Ocean Services as Sentinels. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 1581.1586. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00009.1.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Jury, M., S. Heron S, C. Spillman, K. Anthony, P. Dexter, M. Sivakumar M. (2010) Climate, Carbon and Coral Reefs. WMO-No. 1063, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 32pp.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Simpson, M.C., D. Scott, M. New, R. Sim, D. Smith, M. Harrison, C.M. Eakin, R. Warrick, A.E. Strong, P. Kouwenhoven, S. Harrison, M. Wilson, G.C. Nelson, S. Donner, R. Kay, D.K. Geldhill, G. Liu, J.A. Morgan, J.A. Kleypas, P.J. Mumby, A. Palazzo, T.R.L. Christensen, M.L. Baskett, W.J. Skirving, C. Elrick, M. Taylor, M. Magalhaes, J. Bell, J.B. Burnett, M.K. Rutty, M. Overmas, and R. Robertson. (2009) An Overview of Modelling Climate Change Impacts in the Caribbean Region with contribution from the Pacific Islands, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Barbados, West Indies
          ---  Full report (PDF, 5.1MB).
          ---  Summary document (PDF, 9.4MB).
          ---  Key points (PDF, 3.0MB).
          ---  Publicity poster #1 (PDF, 5.3MB).
          ---  Publicity poster #2 (PDF, 6.8MB).

  • Donner, S.D., S.F. Heron and W.J. Skirving (2009). Future Scenarios: A review of modelling efforts to predict the future of coral reefs in an era of climate change. In M. Van Oppen & J.M. Lough [Eds.], Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Ecological Studies 205, Springer, Berlin. 178 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Peñaflor, E.L., Skirving, W.J., Strong, A.E., Heron, S.F., David, L.T. (2009). Sea-surface temperature and thermal stress in the Coral Triangle over the past two decades. Coral Reefs 28: 841, doi: 10.1007/s00338-009-0522-8.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Eakin, C.M., J.M. Lough and S.F. Heron (2009). Climate Variability and Change: Monitoring data and evidence for increased coral bleaching stress. In M. Van Oppen & J.M. Lough [Eds.], Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Ecological Studies 205, Springer, Berlin. 178 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Maynard, J., J. Johnson, P. Marshall, C. Eakin, G. Goby, H. Schuttenberg and C. Spillman (2009). A Strategic Framework for Responding to Coral Bleaching Events in a Changing Climate. Environmental Management.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Strong, A.E., G. Liu, C.M. Eakin, T.R.L. Christensen, W.J. Skirving, D.K. Gledhill, S.F. Heron and J.A. Morgan (2009). Implications for Our Coral Reefs in a Changing Climate over the Next Few Decades -- Hints from the past 22 years. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida: 1324-1328.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Eakin, C.M., J. Kleypas and O. Hoegh-Guldberg (2008). Global Climate Change and Coral Reefs: Rising Temperatures, Acidification and the Need for Resilient Reefs. In C. Wilkinson [Ed.] Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia. 29-34 pp.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Heron, S., W. Skirving and M. Eakin (2008). Global Climate Change and Coral Reefs: Reef Temperature Perspectives Covering the Last Century. In C. Wilkinson [Ed.] Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia. 35-40 pp.
          ---  Free download from the publisher.

  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C.D. Harvell, P.F. Sale, A.J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C.M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.H. Bradbury, A. Dubi and M.E. Hatziolos (2008). Response to Coral Adaptation in the Face of Climate Change. Science 320(5874): 315-316.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C.D. Harvell, P.F. Sale, A.J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C.M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.H. Bradbury, A. Dubi and M.E. Hatziolos (2007). Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science 318(5857): 1737-1742.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Schuttenberg, H., C. Corrigan, L. McLeod, P. Marshall, N. Setiasih, D. Obura, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, B. Causey, M. Drew, L. Hansen, G. Grimsditch, J. West, A. Skeat, M. Eakin, L. McCook, M. Crawford, P. Kramer and S. Campbell (2007). Building resilience into coral reef management: Key findings & recommendations. Proceedings of the 3rd International Tropical Marine Ecosystems Management Symposium (ITMEMS3), Cozumel, Mexico, 16-20 October 2006, ICRI and ICRAN.
          ---  Free downloads from the conference website.

  • Liu, G. and A.E. Strong (2007). Coral Bleaching. In M.D. King, et al. [Eds.], Our Changing Planet: The View From Space. Cambridge University Press, New York. 184-186 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Phinney, J.T., O. Hoegh-Guldburg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving and A. Strong [Eds]. (2006). Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol. 61. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 244 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Donner, S.D., W.J. Skirving, C.M. Little, M. Oppenheimer and O. Hoegh-Guldberg (2005). Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. Global Change Biology 11(12): 2251-2265.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Liu, G., W. Skirving and A.E. Strong (2003). Potential for expansion of coral reefs into higher latitudes due to climate change. OCEANS 2003, Vol. 5. P2745 - P2747 pp.

  • Wellington, G.M., P.W. Glynn, A.E. Strong, S.A. Navarrete, E. Wieters and D. Hubbard (2001). Crisis on coral reefs linked to climate change. EOS 82(1): 1,5.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).

  • Goreau, T.J., R. Hayes, A.E. Strong, E. Williams, G. Smith, J. Cervino and M. Goreau (1998). Coral reefs and Global Change: Impacts of Temperature, Bleaching, and Emerging Diseases. Sea Wind 12(3): 2-6.

  • Roberts, C.M., J. Hawkins, F.W. Schueler, A.E. Strong and D.E. McAllister (1998). The distribution of coral reef fish biodiversity: the climate-biodiversity connection. Sea Wind 12(4): 14-28.

  • Montgomery, R.S. and A.E. Strong (1994). Coral Bleaching Threatens Ocean, Life. EOS 75(13): 145-147.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires AGU membership).




IV. Remote Sensing Technology for Coral Reefs and other Marine Ecosystems:

  • Sissini, MN, de Barros Barreto MBB, Széchy MTM, de Lucena MB, Oliveira MC, Gower J, Liu G, de Oliveira Bastos E, Milstein D, Gusmăo F, Martinelli-Filho JE, Alves-Lima C, Colepicolo P, Ameka G, de Graft-Johnson K, Gouvea L, Torrano-Silva B, Nauer F, de Castro Nunes JM, Barufi JB, Rörig L, Riosmena-Rodríguez R, Mello TJ, Lotufo LVC, Horta PA (2017) The floating Sargassum (Phaeophyceae) of the South Atlantic Ocean - likely scenarios. Phycologia 56(3): 321-328, doi: 10.2216/16-92.1.
          --- 
    More details from the journal.

  • Hedley JD, Roelfsema CM, Chollett I, Harborne AR, Heron SF, Weeks S, Skirving WJ, Strong AE, Eakin CM, Christensen TRL, Ticzon V, Bejarano S, and Mumby PJ (2016) Remote Sensing of Coral Reefs for Monitoring and Management: A Review. Remote Sensing 8(2): 118, doi:10.3390/rs8020118.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Caldwell JM, Heron SF, Eakin CM, Donahue MJ. (2016) Satellite SST-Based Coral Disease Outbreak Predictions for the Hawaiian Archipelago. Remote Sensing 8(2): 93, doi:10.3390/rs8020093.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Garde LA, Spillman CM, Heron SF, Beeden RJ (2014) ReefTemp Next Generation: A New Operational System for Monitoring Reef Thermal Stress. Journal of Operational Oceanography 7(1): 21-33.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Heron, M., A. Mantovanelli, D. Di Massa, S.F. Heron (2012). Coastal Ocean Radars Applied to Coral Reef Science and Management. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Mantovanelli, A., M.L. Heron, S.F. Heron, C.R. Steinberg (2012). Relative dispersion of surface drifters in a barrier reef region. J. Geophys. Res. 117, C11016, doi:10.1029/2012JC008106.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Burgess, T.F.R., S.F. Heron (2011). Computing Applications for Satellite Temperature Datasets: A Performance Evaluation of Graphics Processing Units. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 139. NOAA/NESDIS. Silver Spring, MD. 14pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Ziskin, D., C. Aubrecht, C. Elvidge, B. Tuttle, C.M. Eakin, A.E. Strong, L.S. Guild (2011). Describing coral reef bleaching using very high spatial resolution satellite imagery: experimental methodology. J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5(1), 053531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3595300.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Eakin, C.M., C.J. Nim, R.E. Brainard, C. Aubrecht, C. Elvidge, D.K. Gledhill, F. Muller-Karger, P.J. Mumby, W.J. Skirving, A.E. Strong, M. Wang, S. Weeks, F. Wentz, D. Ziskin (2010). Monitoring coral reefs from space. Oceanography 23(4): 118-133.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Nim, C.J. and W. Skirving [Eds.] (2010). Satellite Monitoring of Coral Reefs in a Changing Climate. NOAA Technical Report CRCP 1. NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program. Silver Spring, MD. 114 pp.
          ---  More details and free downloads from CoRIS.
          ---  Download the Executive Summary (PDF, 76KB).
          ---  Download the full report (PDF, 13MB).

  • Aubrecht, C., C.D. Elvidge, C.M. Eakin, D. Ziskin and K.E. Baugh (2009). Coral reef risk assessment using DMSP nighttime lights - Temporal trends and global perspectives. Proceedings of the 33rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Stresa, Lago Maggiore, Italy, May 4-8, 2009.
          ---  More details from the conference website (article download requires subscription).

  • Aubrecht, C., C.D. Elvidge, T. Longcore, C. Rich, J. Safran, A.E. Strong, C.M. Eakin, K.E. Baugh, B.T. Tuttle, A.T. Howard and E.H. Erwin (2008). A global inventory of coral reef stressors based on satellite observed nighttime lights. Geocarto International 23(6): 467-479.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Maynard, J.A., P.J. Turner, K.R.N. Anthony, A.H. Baird, R. Berkelmans, C.M. Eakin, J. Johnson, P.A. Marshall, G.R. Packer, A. Rea and B.L. Willis (2008). ReefTemp: an interactive monitoring system for coral bleaching using high-resolution SST and improved stress predictors. Geophysical Research Letters 35: L05603.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Heron, M.L., W.J. Skirving and K.J. Michael (2006a). Short-wave ocean wave slope models for use in remote sensing data analysis. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 44(7, Part 2): 1962-1973.

  • Skirving, W.J., A.E. Strong, G. Liu, F. Arzayus, C. Liu and J. Sapper (2006c). Extreme events and perturbations of coastal ecosystems. In L.L. Richardson & E.F. LeDrew [Eds.], Remote Sensing of Aquatic Coastal Ecosystem Processes. Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing, Vol. 9, Springer. 11-26 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Elvidge, C.D., J.B. Dietz, R. Berkelmans, S. Andréfouët, W. Skirving, A.E. Strong and B.T. Tuttle (2004). Satellite observation of Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef) 2002 coral bleaching using IKONOS data. Coral Reefs 23(3): 461-462.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Mumby, P.J., W. Skirving, A.E. Strong, J.T. Hardy, E.F. LeDrew, E.J. Hochberg, R.P. Stumpf and L.T. David (2004). Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48(3-4): 219.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Nalli, N., F. Arzayus, P. Chang, P. Clemente-Colon, A. Harris, A. Ignatov, R. Legeckis, X. Li, G. Liu, E. Maturi, T. Mavor, R. Meiggs, B. Pichel, J. Sapper, W. Skirving, A. Strong, C. Merchant and S. MacCallum (2004a). Satellite Remote Sensing and the NOAA/NESDIS Sea-Surface Temperature Science Team. Backscatter Spring 2004: 24-28.

  • Kutser, T., W.J. Skirving and A. Dekker (2003). Satellite remote sensing of coral reef benthos. Limnology and Oceanography 48: 497-510.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Skirving, W.J. (2002). A system for routinely monitoring radiometric sea surface temperature. Marine Technology Society Journal 36(1): 39-43.
          ---  More details from the journal (requires MTS membership).

  • Wellington, G.M., A.E. Strong and G. Merlen (2001a). Sea surface temperature variation in the Galapagos Archipelago: a comparison between AVHRR nighttime satellite data and in-situ instrumentation (1982-1988). Bulletin of Marine Science 69(1): 27-42.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Strong, A.E., K.K. Gjovig and E. Kearns (2000). Sea Surface Temperature Signals from Satellites - An Update. Geophysical Research Letters 27(11): 1667-1670.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Patzert, W.C., A.E. Strong and G.C. Feldman (1997). Coral Reefs from Space. In T. Tomascik, et al. [Eds.], The Ecology of the Indonesian Seas. Part II. The Ecology of Indonesia Series, Vol. VII, Periplus Editions Ltd., Singapore. 1206-1208 pp.

  • Strong, A.E., J.A. Preyer and C.S. Barrientos (1995). Assessing CZCS time-series data globally, regionally, and zonally: 1979-1985. Advances in Space Research 16(10): 147-150.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Strong, A.E. (1991). Sea surface temperature signals from space. In W.A. Nierenberg [Ed.] Encyclopedia of Earth System Science. Vol. 4, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 69-80 pp.
          ---  Click here for more details.




V. Observing Systems and Technologies for Coral Reefs:




VI. Paleoclimatology:

  • Grottoli, A.G. and C.M. Eakin (2007). A review of modern coral [delta]18O and [Delta]14C proxy records. Earth-Science Reviews 81(1-2): 67-91.
          --- 
    More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Diffenbaugh, N.S., C.M. Eakin, B.L. Otto-Bliesner and M. Zhao [Eds]. (2006a). Glacial-interglacial climate of the past 160,000 years: New insights from data and models. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 236.

  • Diffenbaugh, N.S., C.M. Eakin, B.L. Otto-Bliesner and M. Zhao (2006b). Introduction to the special issue "Glacial-interglacial climate of the past 160,000 years: New insights from data and models". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 236(1-2): 1-4.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Eakin, C.M. and A.G. Grottoli (2006). Coral Reef Records of Past Climatic Change. In J.T. Phinney, et al. [Eds.], Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol. 61, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 33-54 pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Eakin, C.M., P.K. Swart, T.M. Quinn, K.P. Helmle, J.M. Smith and R.E. Dodge (2006). Application of paleoclimatology to coral reef monitoring and management. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, Okinawa: 588-596.
          ---  Free download from ReefBase.

  • Eakin, C.M., M. Diepenbroek and M. Hoepffner (2003). The PAGES Data System. In K.D. Alverson, et al. [Eds.], Paleoclimate, Global Change and the Future. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 175-179 pp.
          ---  More information from the publisher.

  • Alverson, K. and C.M. Eakin (2001). Making sure that the world's palaeodata do not get buried - International efforts are keeping information accessible. Nature 412(6844): 269-269.
          ---  More information from the journal.




VII. Hydrodynamic modeling:




VIII. Ocean Acidification:

  • Gledhill, D.K., R. Wanninkhof, C.M. Eakin (2009). Observing Ocean Acidification from Space. Oceanography 22(4):48.59.
          --- 
    Free download from the journal.

  • Gledhill, D.K., R. Wanninkhof, F.J. Millero and M. Eakin (2008). Ocean Acidification of the Greater Caribbean Region 1996-2006. Journal of Geophysical Research- Oceans 113: C10031.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Manzello, D.P., J.A. Kleypas, D.A. Budd, C.M. Eakin, P.W. Glynn and C. Langdon (2008). Poorly cemented coral reefs of the eastern tropical Pacific: Possible insights into reef development in a high-CO2 world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(30): 10450-10455.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).

  • Kleypas, J.A., R.W. Buddemeier, C.M. Eakin, J.P. Gattuso, J. Guinotte, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, R. Iglesias-Prieto, P.L. Jokiel, C. Langdon, W. Skirving and A.E. Strong (2005). Comment on "Coral reef calcification and climate change: The effect of ocean warming". Geophysical Research Letters 32(8): L08601.
          ---  More details from the journal (article download requires subscription).




IX. Other Threats to Coral Reefs:

  • Caldwell JM, Burns JHR, Couch C, Ross M, Runyon C, Takabayashi M, Vargas-Ángel B, Walsh W, Walton M, White D, Williams G, Heron SF (2016) Hawai'i Coral Disease database (HICORDIS): species-specific coral health data from across the Hawaiian archipelago. Data in Brief 8: 1054-1058, doi:10.1016/j.dib.2016.07.025.
          --- 
    Free download from the journal.

  • Welch, H, Pressey RL, Heron SF, Ceccarelli DM, Hobday AJ (2016) Regimes of chlorophyll-a in the Coral Sea: implications for evaluating adequacy of marine protected areas. Ecography 39(3): 289-304, doi: 10.1111/ecog.01450.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Maynard, J, Beeden R, Puotinen M, Johnson J, Marshall P, van Hooidonk R, Heron SF, Devlin M, Lawrey E, Dryden J, Ban N, Wachenfeld D, Planes S (2016) Great Barrier Reef no-take areas include a range of disturbance regimes. Conservation Letters 9(3): 191-199, doi: 10.1111/conl.12198.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Maynard J, van Hooidonk R, Harvell CD, Eakin CM, Liu G, Willis BL, Williams GJ, Groner M, Dobson A, Heron SF, Glenn R, Reardon K, Shields JD (2016) Improving marine disease surveillance through sea temperature monitoring, outlooks and projections. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371(1689): 20150208, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0208.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Groner ML, Maynard J, Breyta R, Carnegie RB, Dobson A, Friedman CS, Froelich B, Garren M, Gulland FMD, Heron SF, Noble RT, Revie CW, Shields JD, Vanderstichel R, Weil E, Wyllie-Echeverria S, Harvell CD (2016) Managing Marine Disease Emergencies in an Era of Rapid Change. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371(1689): 20150364, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0364.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Pascoe S, Doshi A, Thébaud O, Thomas CR, Schuttenberg HZ, Heron SF, Setiasih N, Tan JCH, True J, Wallmo K, Loper C, Calgaro E (2014) Estimating the potential impact of entry fees for marine parks on dive tourism in South East Asia, Marine Policy 47: 147-152.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Pollock, JF, Lamb JB, Field SN, Heron SF, Schaffelke B, Shedrawi G, Bourne DG, Willis BL (2014). Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase coral disease prevalence on nearby reefs. PLOS ONE 9(7): e102498.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Johnson, J, Maynard J, Devlin M, Wilkinson S, Anthony K, Yorkston H, Heron S, Puotinen M, van Hooidonk R. (2013). Chapter 2 - Resilience of Great Barrier Reef marine ecosystems and drivers of change. In: Brodie J, Waterhouse J, Schaffelke B, Kroon F, Thorburn P, Rolfe J, Johnson J, Fabricius K, Lewis S, Devlin M, Warne M, and McKenzie L (Eds.), 2013 Scientific Consensus Statement: Land use impacts on Great Barrier Reef water quality and ecosystem condition, 35pp.
          ---  Free download.

  • Beeden, R., J.A. Maynard, P.A. Marshall, S.F. Heron, B.L. Willis (2012). A framework for responding to coral disease outbreaks that facilitates adaptive management. Environmental Management 49: 1-13.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Heron, S.F., J. Maynard, B. Willis, T. Christensen, D. Harvell, B. Vargas-Angel, R. Beeden, J. Sziklay, G. Aeby, E. Franklin, W. Skirving, M. Eakin, T. Burgess, J. Li, G. Liu, E. Lucas, J. Rauenzahn, A. Strong (2012). Developments in understanding relationships between environmental conditions and coral disease. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia, 9-13 July 2012.
          ---  Free download from the conference website.

  • Edwards, H.J., I.A. Elliott, C.M. Eakin, A. Irikawa, J.S. Madin, M. McField, J.A. Morgan, R. van Woesik, P.J. Mumby (2011). How much time can herbivore protection buy for coral reefs under realistic regimes of hurricanes and coral bleaching? Global Change Biology 17: 2033.2048. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02366.x.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Liu, G., D. Obura, M. Richmond, D. Souter, M. Eakin (2011). Global and Regional Phenomena. In: Field Guide to the Seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands, 3rd Edition, M. Richmond, ed., Sida/SAREC, University of Dar es Salaam, 464pp.
          ---  More details from the publisher.

  • Maynard, J.A., K.R.N. Anthony, C.D. Harvell, M.A. Burgman, R. Beeden, H. Sweatman, S.F. Heron, J.B. Lamb, B.L. Willis (2011). Predicting outbreaks of a climate-driven coral disease in the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 30(2): 485-495, doi: 10.1007/s00338-010-0708-0.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Aubrecht, C., C.D. Elvidge and C.M. Eakin (2008). Earth observation based assessment of anthropogenic stress to coral reefs - A global analysis. IEEE (Eds.), IGARSS'08: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, July, 6th - 11th, Boston, Massachusetts: 367-370.
          ---  More details from the conference website.

  • Clarke, A., T. Battista, B. Dieveney, D. Gledhill, M. Gombos, C. Jeffrey, J. Koss, T. Leberer, C. Loper, G. Liu, J. Miller, J. Moore, J. Morgan, S. Simpson, J. Waddell and D. Wusinich-Mendez (2008). National Level Activities to Support U.S. and FAS Coral Conservation. In J.E. Waddell & A.M. Clarke [Eds.], The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 73. NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team, Silver Spring, MD. 11-28 pp.
          ---  Download the report in PDF format: 66MB

  • Heron, M.L., A. Prytz, S.F. Heron, W.J. Skirving, T. Helzel, T. Schlick, D. Greenslade and E. Schulz (2008). Tsunami Observation by Coastal Ocean Radar. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Special Issue PORSEC 29(21): 6347-6359.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Kleypas, J.A. and C.M. Eakin (2007). Scientists' perceptions of threats to coral reefs: results of a survey of coral reef researchers. Bulletin of Marine Science 80(2): 419-436.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Bruckner, A., K. Buja, L. Fairey, K. Gleason, M. Harmon, S. Heron, T. Hourigan, C. Jeffrey, J. Kellner, R. Kelty, B. Leeworthy, G. Liu, S. Pittman, A. Shapiro, A. Strong, J. Waddell and P. Wiley (2005). Threats and Stressors to U.S. Coral Reef Ecosystems. In J.E. Waddell [Ed.] The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11, NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team, Silver Spring, MD. 12-44 pp.
          ---  Free download from NOAA.

  • McKinnon, D., M. Meekan, J. Carleton, M. Furnas, S. Duggan and W. Skirving (2003). Rapid changes in shelf waters and pelagic communities on the southern Northwest Shelf, Australia, following a tropical cyclone. Continental Shelf Research 23: 93-111.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Eakin, C.M. (2001). A tale of two ENSO events: Carbonate budgets and the influence of two warming events and intervening variability, Uva Island, Panama. Bulletin of Marine Science 69(1): 171-186.
          ---  Free download from the journal.

  • Eakin, C.M. (1996). Where have all the carbonates gone? A model comparison of calcium carbonate budgets before and after the 1982-1983 El Niño. Coral Reefs 15(2): 109-119.
          ---  More details from the journal.

  • Eakin, C.M. and P.W. Glynn (1996). Low tidal exposures and reef mortalities in the eastern Pacific. Coral Reefs 15(2): 120.
          ---  More details from the journal.




Many of the files are in PDF format. Free Adobe Acrobat Readers can be downloaded from Adobe.