NOAA Coral Reef Watch is undertaking an effort to determine the severity and distribution of recent coral bleaching and mortality and compare these with satellite measurements of bleaching heat stress.
Mass coral bleaching events (some on the global scale) have been occurring more and more frequently in the last 30 years. A large number of coral reef areas in the United States and worldwide have experienced severe bleaching, sometimes in back-to-back events. For instance, elevated ocean temperatures in 2010 resulted in a major coral bleaching event in many parts of the world; this became known as the second global bleaching event on record. In mid-2014, record heat stress and bleaching were observed in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (for the second year in a row), the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the Main Hawaiian Islands, and the Marshall Islands, among other regions. We now know this was the beginning of the third documented global coral bleaching event, which persisted for three years. As of the end of May 2017, the third global coral bleaching event most likely ended (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 2017) but will remain the longest, most widespread, and probably the most damaging coral bleaching event on record. It affected more reefs than any previous global bleaching event and was worse in some locales (e.g., Great Barrier Reef, Kiribati, Jarvis Island). Heat stress during this event also caused mass bleaching in several reefs that never bleached before (e.g., northernmost Great Barrier Reef).
The 2014-17 global coral bleaching event provides an opportunity for comparison of coral bleaching and mortality data and observations from the field with NOAA satellite data and Coral Reef Watch's current 5 km satellite coral bleaching heat stress product suite. The enhanced satellite products offer higher spatial (5 km) and temporal (daily) resolutions. They include, among other products, sea surface temperature (SST), SST Anomaly, Coral Bleaching HotSpot, Degree Heating Week, 7-Day Maximum Bleaching Alert Area, 7-Day SST Trend, and a set of 213 Regional Virtual Stations, associated Bleaching Heat Stress Gauges, and a free, automated Satellite Bleaching Alert Email System.
To see a map of the 2014-2015 observations, collated by Coral Reef Watch as of May 23 2018, click here.
-- In this map file:
orange labels = observations from 2014
green labels = observations from 2015
To see a map of the 2016-2017 observations, collated by Coral Reef Watch as of May 23 2018, click here.
-- In this map file:
purple labels = observations from 2016
gray labels = observations from 2017
Click on any label to see the following for each observation:
- Location and site name
- Year, month, and date (where available)
- Source, citation, and data point of contact (where available)
**To contribute coral bleaching data and observations (including reports of NO bleaching) to our effort, please do the following:**
1. E-mail your data files (in Excel, Word, etc.) directly to email@example.com, OR
2. Enter your data into Coral Reef Watch's Google Form, OR
3. Download Coral Reef Watch's observations questionnaire (below), enter your data, and e-mail the completed questionnaire to firstname.lastname@example.org.
NOAA Coral Reef Watch Observations Questionnaire
(Excel spreadsheet, 13kb, Revised Apr 11, 2018)
To learn more about the 2014-2017 global coral bleaching event, click here.
To view an animation of the progression (June 2014-May 2017) of this global coral bleaching event, click here. (You may need to double-click on the image to begin the animation.)
For additional information about the Top 10 Things Resource Managers and Other Coral Reef Stakeholders Can Do Before, During, and After a Bleaching Event, please visit: https://www.coris.noaa.gov/activities/projects/bleach_events/.
NOAA Coral Reef Watch has co-authored a new
high-resolution global mass coral bleaching database, published in PLoS ONE
on April 26, 2017. Databases described in the paper can be accessed here.